Volume:9, Issue: 1

May. 15, 2017

Effects of Video Modeling on Spontaneous Requesting for Children with Autism
Howida, Hanna [about] , Jones, Vita [about]

KEYWORDS and DEFINITIONS:

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social and communication skills.
  • Deficits in Social Communication Skills refers to lack of eye contact, lack of responding to others and lack of verbalization that indicate requesting objects or attention from others.
  • Video Modeling (VM) involves the child watching videotapes of positive models of adults, peers or him-or herself engaging in an appropriate behavior. There are five types of VM that include Adult Video Modeling, Peer Video Modeling, Video Self Modeling, Point of View, and Mixed Models.
  • Adult Video Modeling (AVM) is when an adult models the target behavior.
  • Peer Video Modeling (PVM) include peers who are the same age and gender of the participant.
  • Video Self Modeling (VSM) refers to watching images of oneself engaged in the target behavior.
  • Point of View Model (POVM) refers to the visual image that can be seen if the participant was engaged in the behavior.
  • Mixed Video Model (MVM) combines all model types. 
  • Spontaneous Requesting is when the child asks for a toy or an object independently without any prompts.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of using Video Modeling on spontaneous requesting for preschool-aged children with autism. The dependent variable is the frequency of spontaneous requests made by each participant. The independent variable is the Video Modeling intervention. The researchers used a multiple baseline across participants’ design to compare between the number of spontaneous requests made by each participant during baseline, intervention, and maintenance phases. As a result of implementing the Video Modeling intervention, all three participants demonstrated an increase in spontaneous requesting. All participants maintained the behavior requesting skills three weeks after the intervention and after coming back from a three weeks' winter break.


Introduction

According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA) (2000), communication and social impairments are the core features of ASD. Children with ASD have significant social communicative deficits that affect their academic success (Wilson, 2013). Wert and Neisworth (2003) stated that the lack of social communication skills can also affect the children’s ability to function in their society. In addition, individuals with poor social and communication skills can be excluded from society and may not be able to make friends (Smith, Hand, & Dorwick, 2014). Social communication skills are very important features of human interactions. Therefore, lack of communication skills for children with ASD is a major problem.                                                  

There are many different communication interventions that have been used to improve communication skills for children with ASD. According to the National Professional Development Center (NPDC) for ASD, there are 27 focused interventions that met the criteria of evidence-based practices. One of these evidence-based interventions reported in the literature to be effective in teaching social communication skills to children with ASD is Video Modeling (VM) (Banda, Copple, Koul, Sancibrian, & Bogschutz, 2010).

With the increasing affordability of digital technology, VM represents a practical intervention to be used in the classrooms with children with autism (Wilson, 2013). Wilson (2013) also stated VM is found to be a time and cost efficient intervention. VM is easier to create than a static picture cue and can be individualized to children’s needs which is very important when serving a heterogeneous population as children with ASD. Buggey (2012) stated the reason for the success of VM is that children with ASD learn better through visual means. In addition, VM does not require children to socially interact with the video.

Significance     

Researchers in many studies targeted social communication skills including social initiation, imitation, play skills, and spontaneous requesting for children with ASD (Banda et al., 2010). Investigators examined the effectiveness of using the different types of Video Modeling to help improve the social communication skills of children with ASD. For example, Kourassanis, Jones, and Fienup (2015) examined using Peer Video Modeling to teach social games to preschool-aged children with ASD. The results of the study showed PVM is an effective strategy to teach social games to children with ASD. Wert and Neisworth (2003) found Video Self Modeling effective in teaching spontaneous requesting to preschool-aged children with autism.

Although researchers investigated the impact of using the five types of VM on spontaneous requesting for individuals with ASD, there are limited studies that examined the effectiveness of using Peer Video Modeling to teach spontaneous requesting to preschool-aged children. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of using Peer Video Modeling to teach spontaneous requesting to preschool-aged children with ASD.  The researcher selected PVM over other types of VM because researchers in other studies found PVM to be effective in teaching social skills to children with autism (Kourassanis et al., 2015)

Effects of Video Modeling on Teaching Play Skills

Children with autism are characterized by impairment in reciprocal pretend play (Jarrold 2003; Lifter 2002). Research indicates that VM is an effective intervention to teach new skills to children with autism. MacDonald, Sacramone, Mansfield, Wiltz, and Ahearn (2009) examined the effects of VM to teach children with autism to be engaged in reciprocal pretend play with typical peers. Participants included two pairs of children. Each pair included a child with autism and a typical peer. The first participant was diagnosed with autism. He was seven years old. His partner was a five years old girl. The second participant was five years old and he was diagnosed with autism. His partner was a five year old boy. The video modeling and the baseline were conducted in a room to control the visual distractors and the noise. The independent variable was the VM. The dependent variables were scripted verbalizations, unscripted verbalization, scripted play actions, unscripted play actions, cooperative play, and reciprocal verbal interaction chains.

The authors used a multiple-probe design across three play sets. MacDonald et al. (2009) found that VM is an effective intervention which can be used to teach cooperative play. All participants demonstrated rapid acquisition of verbalizations and play actions. In addition, this performance was maintained over time. Limitation of this study included an extended lack of novel actions. Another limitation was lack of generalization to other natural play settings. MacDonald et al. (2009) recommended future researchers address the issue of generalization of acquired skills to novel settings, peers and play materials.

Boudreau and D’Entremont (2010) evaluated the effects of VM in teaching play skills to children with autism. Participants included two four-year-old boys. They both were diagnosed with autism.  The study took place in an intervention center. The independent variable was VM. Dependent variables were the number of modeled and un-modeled actions, scripted and unscripted verbalizations. Boudreau and D’Entremont (2010) used a single subject design with multiple baseline across participants. All the sessions were held one to five times per week over the period of three months for 22 sessions for the first participant and 25 sessions for the second participant. Both participants increased their performance of play behavior during the video modeling phase. In addition, both participants exhibited generalization of modeled actions and scripted verbalization. They were able to imitate actions and verbalization related to a toy set after watching the video. The results also showed that the generalization session helped increase the boys’ performance of novel play behavior. Future researchers should include a bigger sample.  

Children who have limited social and communication skills have difficulties in learning play skills (Terpstra, Higgins, & Pierce, 2002).  Research shows that Video modeling is an effective intervention that is used to teach play skills to children with autism. Ozen, Batu, and Berkan (2012) examined the effects of VM in teaching sociodramatic play to children with autism in a small group arrangement. Participants included three nine year old boys who were diagnosed with autism. All participants were able to pay attention to visual stimuli for at least 20 minutes and to imitate motor and verbal skills. They were able to take turns during small group activities and follow verbal instructions. They were also able to read written scripts and memorize written scripts. The VM sessions were implemented in the audio-visual room of the unit for the children with developmental disabilities. The role play sessions were conducted in the cafeteria of the university. The observational learning data was also collected in the cafeteria of the university. The teacher scenario was implemented in one of the classes in the unit. The doctor scenario was conducted at the physiotherapist’s office. A camera was used during all the sessions to record the data. The independent variable was VM. The dependent variable was the percent of correctly performed steps in each scenario. Ozen et al. (2012) used a multiple probe design across behavior to examine the effects of VM in teaching sociodramatic play to children with autism in a small group arrangements. The results of the study showed that all participants met the criterion for the study. All participants demonstrated maintenance of the skill two weeks after the training was completed. Ozen et al. (2012) found VM is an effective intervention in teaching sociodramatic play to children in small groups. Although VM was found to be effective in teaching sociodramtic play, participants still needed verbal feedback and verbal prompts. Ozen et al. (2012) recommended future researchers conduct small group arrangements with other participants with developmental disabilities.  Future researchers should also include peers or cartoons as models. Ozen et al. (2012) also recommended future researchers conduct studies with different scenario.

Scheflen, Freeman, and Paparella (2012) also investigated the effectiveness of using VM to teach play and language skills to children with autism. Participants included four boys with autism. The independent variable was VM. The dependent variables were play actions and appropriate play utterance. Scheflen et al. (2012) used a single subject multiple baseline design across four children. The overall findings of this study indicate that VM is an effective intervention that can be used to teach children with autism how to play appropriately with toys in structured and generalized situations. All participants showed a significant improvement in both play and language skills. Participants showed increase in the frequency and complexity of the language during playing. One of the limitations of this study was that no follow-up probes were made to determine whether the participants retained the skills that were generalized during the investigation. Scheflen et al. (2012) recommended future researchers examine the effectiveness of using VM to teach play and language skills to determine the best way to ensure generalization and retention of learned skills.

Effects of Peer Video Modeling on Teaching Social Games

Peer Video Modeling (PVM) is one of the interventions used to teach sequences of play behaviors or chained social skills behaviors. Therefore, Kourassanis, Jones, and Fienup (2015) extended the video modeling research on the acquisition of chained social behavior. Kourassanis et al. (2015) examined the effects of using Peer Video modeling to teach two common social games to children with autism (e.g., Duck, Duck Goose, and Hokey, Pokey). Participants included two children. The first participant was a five-year-old girl diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental disorder. The second participant was a six-year-old boy diagnosed with autism. Both participants were able to use multiword sentences with extended grade level vocabularies. Both participants were able to follow one to two step commands. Kourassanis et al. (2015) used a multiple baseline design across two games to assess the effects of PVM on chained gross motor behavior during social games “Duck, Duck Goose” and “Hokey Pokey”. The study conducted at a center-based program that provided social skills groups and parent training.

Kourassanis et al. (2015) found that Peer Video Modeling is an effective intervention to teach chained social games to children with autism. Generalization probes showed a slight increase in performance for participants. One of the limitations of this study was that the participants were selected based on their current social skills and deficits. Another limitation was that the study was conducted in a group setting in which each child observed the other in the group which indicated that if one participant acquired a skill, he/she can be served as a model for the other participant.

Effects of Video Modeling on Teaching Social Initiation

Researchers also evaluated the effects of using VM on teaching social initiation to children with autism. For example, Nikopoulos and Keenan (2003) examined the effects of using video modeling to promote social initiation in children with autism. There were seven participants in this study. They were between the ages of seven and 18 years old. They were all diagnosed with developmental delay. Nikopoulos and Keenan (2003) used a multiple design. The independent variable was video modeling intervention. The dependent variable was social initiation. Only four out of seven participants showed enhancement in social initiation. In addition, these participants were able to generalize the skills across settings, peers, and toys. These skills were also maintained at one and two months follow up. One of the limitations of this study was that it was not clear if the selected toys affected the target behavior. Another limitation was that it was not clear if the presence of an adult affected the target behavior. Future researchers should compare the effectiveness of video modeling and in vivo modeling with children who have limited imitation skills. In addition, future researchers should examine the effectiveness of using short video clips.

Nikopoulos and Keenan (2004) conducted another study to examine the effects of using video modeling intervention on social initiation and reciprocal play for children with autism. Participants included three children with autism. They were between seven and nine years old. Nikopoulos and Keenan (2004) used a multiple baseline across subjects design. Materials used in this study were four toys and a videotape. Participants watched a video that showed a typical peer engaging in social interaction with experimenter. The participants watched the video in one room. The participants’ social initiations were assessed in another room. The independent variable was video modeling intervention. The dependent variables were social initiation and reciprocal play in children with autism. The results of this study showed that social initiation and reciprocal play was enhanced for all participants. These skills were maintained at one and three months follow-ups.

Buggey (2012) examined the effects of VM on social initiation for children with autism.  Buggey (2012) used video self-modeling (VSM) with three years old children who were diagnosed with autism. All participants were receiving occupational and speech language therapies. They rarely engaged in social initiations. They all had difficulty following directions. The study was conducted in a private inclusive preschool in Southeastern city. The materials used included mini DV camcorder and laptop. The independent variable was video self-modeling intervention. The dependent variable was the number of social initiations made by three years old children with autism with their peers during playground time. Buggey (2012) used a single-case multiple baseline design across three participants consisting of baseline, interventions, and maintenance phases. Buggey (2012) used two different methods to analyze the data. These methods were visual inspection of graphs and differences in means across the study. The results of the study showed that there was no increase in the number of social initiations made by the participants. One of the limitations was that observation was not practical because teachers showed the video to the children in their offices. Future researchers should conduct more studies to determine if age is a factor associated with the effectiveness of using VSM with children with autism. Future researchers should include a bigger sample.

Plavnick, MacFarland, and Ferreri (2015) investigated the effects of using VM to teach peer directed initiation to children with autism. Playnick et al. (2015) used a single subject reversal design. Participants included three boys with autism. All participants exhibited minimal interaction with peers only when prompted by adults. The first and the second participants were five years old. The third participant was six years old. Playnick et al. (2015) implemented the study in a public early childhood center. The independent variable was VM. The dependent variable was initiation towards peers. In sharing toys’ condition, participants were taught to initiate with peers by inviting them to join a preferred activity. In the joining condition, participants were taught to ask if they could join in a preferred activity. The results of the study showed that all the participants demonstrated initiation during the joining but not the sharing condition. In addition, all participants started directed initiation towards peers during the first phase of joining in play. One of the limitations of this study was the limited time to complete the full reversal because the study was conducted at the end of the year. Therefore, the final sharing and joining phases were brief.  Plavnick et al. (2015) recommended future researchers compare the efficacy of VM for different target behaviors. Another limitation was that the responses taught during the social skills group were not probed under different conditions. Future researchers should examine the generalization of skills involving peer interactions following the VM interventions. Another limitation of this study was that all the conditions were introduced in the same order to the participants. Therefore, future researchers should counterbalance the order of the conditions across participants.

Effects of Video Modeling on Teaching Persistence in Social Initiation        

Research indicates that VM can be used to teach persistence in social initiation to children with autism.  For example, Grosberg and Charlop (2014) examined the effects of using portable video modeling intervention to teach persistence in social initiation to children with autism. There were two hypotheses tested. The first hypothesis was that children would learn persistence in social initiation to peers by using VM. The second hypothesis was that children would generalize and maintain the skills across settings. Three boys and one girl diagnosed with autism participated in the study. Their ages were between seven and ten years old. The intervention took place in a playroom at an after school program. The assessment of the intervention took place in an outdoor play setting while generalization assessment took place in an indoor recreation center and at a public park. The maintenance of the behavior was also assessed at one and two month followups.

Grosberg and Charlop (2014) found portable video modeling is an effective intervention that can be used to teach persistence in social initiation for children with autism. All children learned persistence in social initiation. They also maintained the skills at one and two-month followups. In addition, they all were able to generalize the skill. Future studies should include more participants who have different functioning levels.

Effects of Video Modeling on Teaching Socially Expressive Behavior         

Research indicates that VM can be used to teach socially expressive behavior to children with autism. Charlop, Dennis, Carpenter, and Greenberg (2010) examined the effects of using VM to increase socially expressive behavior for children with autism. The hypothesis was that VM could increase four target behaviors for all the participants. These four target behaviors were verbal comments, intonations, gestures, and facial expressions. It was also hypothesized that participants would generalize these behaviors across persons, settings and stimuli. Participants included three boys with autism. Their ages were between seven and 11 years old. They all exhibited difficulties with socially expressive behaviors. All participants watched the videos in a room at their after-school program. The intervention play sessions was conducted in a playroom. The adult generalizations’ probes took place in another room that the participants were not familiar with. Charlop et al. (2010) used a multiple baseline design for this study. The independent variable was VM. The dependent variables were the four socially expressive behaviors target skills. All participants showed acquisition of all of the four target behaviors: verbal comments, intonations, gestures, and facial expressions during social interactions. Charlop et al. (2010) found VM is an effective intervention that can be used to promote socially expressive behaviors in children with autism. All participants showed demonstration of the target behaviors across people, setting, and stimuli. Limitations of this study included the lack of baseline peer probes for two of the participants. Charlop et al. (2010) recommended future researchers conduct further studies to examine the effectiveness of using VM in teaching nonverbal communication skills to children with autism who are low functioning.

Effects of Video Modeling on Teaching Spontaneous Requesting              

Video self-modeling (VSM) is one of the interventions that is used to teach new skills to children with autism. Wert and Neisworth (2003) examined the effects of using VSM to improve the social communicative skills for children with autism by teaching them how to make spontaneous requests at school. Spontaneous requesting is when the child asks for an object independently without prompts or assistance. The participants were four preschool-aged boys with autism. They were between three and six years old. All participants had difficulties making spontaneous requests. The independent variable was video self modeling. The dependent variable was the frequency of spontaneous requesting. The materials included a videotape for each participant. Wert and Neisworth (2003) utilized a single subject design using multiple baseline across participants.

Wert and Neisworth (2003) found that VSM is an effective intervention that can be used to increase the frequency of spontaneous requesting for children with autism. All participants had an increase in the frequency of spontaneous requesting except for one. In addition, the results support a generalization of the skill from home to school. There were two limitations of this study. The first one was that spontaneous requesting was not a new skill for the participants as they have been previously trained in this skill. Second, video self modeling was highly motivated for three participants because they were interested in watching videotapes. Wert and Neisworth (2003) suggested that future researchers should include analysis of spontaneous requesting to peers versus adults.        

Similarly to the study done by Wert and Neisworth (2003), Banda, Copple, Koul, Sancibrian, and Bogschutz (2010) examined the impact of using Adult Video Modeling (AVM) on spontaneous requesting for individuals with autism. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether individuals with autism would learn to use a speech generating device to make a spontaneous request for a desired item after implementing AVM. Participants were between 17 and 21 years old. Both participants were diagnosed with autism and speech impairment. The independent variable was AVM. The dependent variable was the spontaneous requesting behavior.  Banda et al. (2010) used a multiple baseline across subjects. The results of this study showed that both participants were able to request preferred items using SGD after watching the video modeling. In addition, both participants were not able to generalize requesting to a second preferred object using SGD. Banda et al. (2010) suggested future researchers should focus on replication of this study across different participants, age groups, and related impairments.

In this paper, the researcher examined the effectiveness of using Video Modeling to teach spontaneous requesting to preschool-aged children with autism. The investigation was completed over three phases. The phases included baseline, intervention, and maintenance. During the baseline, data was collected over one week. The intervention phase lasted for three weeks. Data for the maintenance phase was collected three weeks after the participants came back from a three weeks’ winter break.

Conclusion

The goal of this paper was to examine the effectiveness of using Video Modeling (VM) to teach spontaneous requesting to children with autism. In conclusion, the researchers found positive results of the Video Modeling (VM) intervention. All participants increased spontaneous requests as a result of implementing the intervention. In addition, they also maintained the requesting behavior skills during the maintenance phase.


References

  1. Banda, D. R., Copple, K. S., Koul, R. K., Sancibrian, S. L., & Bogschutz, R. J. (2010). Video modelling interventions to teach spontaneous requesting using AAC devices to individuals with autism: a preliminary investigation. Disability & Rehabilitation, 32(16), 1364-1372
  2. Boudreau, E., & D’Entremont, B. (2010). Improving the pretend play skills of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders: The effects of video modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 22(4), 415-431. doi:10.1007/s10882-010-9201-5
  3. Buggey, T. (2012). Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 27(2), 102-110.
  4. Charlop, M. H., Dennis, B., Carpenter, M. H., & Greenberg, A. L. (2010). Teaching Socially Expressive Behaviors to Children with Autism through Video Modeling. Education And Treatment Of Children, 33(3), 371-393.
  5. Grosberg, D. & Charlop, M. (2014). Teaching persistence in social initiation bids to children with autism through a portable video modeling intervention (PVMI) Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 26. 527-541. doi:10.1007/s10882-013-9362-0
  6. Haring, T., Kennedy, C., Adams, M., & Pitts-Conway (1987). Teaching generalization of purchasing skills across community settings to autistic youth using videotape modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 89–96.
  7. Kourassanis, J., Jones, E. A., & Fienup, D. M. (2015). Peer-video modeling: Teaching chained social game behaviors to children with ASD. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(1), 25-36. doi:10.1007/s10882-014-9399-8
  8. MacDonald, R., Sacramone, S., Mansfield, R., Wiltz, K., & Ahearn, W. H. (2009). Using Video Modeling to Teach Reciprocal Pretend Play to Children with Autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(1), 43-55.
  9. McCoy, K., & Hermansen, E. (2007). Video Modeling for Individuals with Autism: A Review of Model Types and Effects. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(4), 183-213.
  10. Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2003). Promoting social initiation children with autism using video modeling. Behavioral Interventions, 18(2), 87-108. doi:10.1002/bin.129
  11. Nikopoulous, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video modeling on social initiations by children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37(1), 93-96. doi:10.1901/jaba.2004.37-93
  12. Ozen, A., Batu, S., & Birkan, B. (2012). Teaching Play Skills to Children with Autism through Video Modeling: Small Group Arrangement and Observational Learning. Education and Training In Autism And Developmental Disabilities, 47(1), 84-96.
  13. Plavnick, J. B., MacFarland, M. C., & Ferreri, S. J. (2015). Variability in the Effectiveness of a Video Modeling Intervention Package for Children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(2), 105-115.
  14. Scheflen, S. C., Freeman, S. N., & Paparella, T. (2012). Using Video Modeling to Teach Young Children with Autism Developmentally Appropriate Play and Connected Speech. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 47(3), 302-318.
  15. Smith, J., Hand, L., & Dowrick, P. (2014). Video Feedforward for Rapid Learning of a Picture-Based Communication System. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 44(4).
  16. Wert, B. Y., & Neisworth, J. T. (2003). Effects of Video Self-Modeling on Spontaneous Requesting in Children with Autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(1)
  17. Wilson, K. P. (2013). Teaching Social-Communication Skills to Preschoolers with Autism: Efficacy of Video versus in Vivo Modeling in the Classroom. Journal of Autism And Developmental Disorders, 43(8), 1819-1831.




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